Category Archives: Seventh Council

Smart’s Articles

The Rev’d Peter Smart

In the mid-1560’s, episcopal visitations tried to slow iconoclasm in the churches. The 1566 Advertisements give example, inquiring into the placement of communion tables, forbidding baptismal fonts relocation from  ‘ancient usual places’, mandating kneeling at communion, and minimally wearing a surplice rather than academic gown. By King James’ reign these injunctions tightened, and a campaign to ‘dignify’ externals in worship was launched by Bishops Bancroft, Andrewes, Neile, Laud, Montagu, and Cosin. Beautification might include carpeting chancels, installing organs, purchasing table frontals,  or embroidering priestly vestments. It also included bodily reverences during the liturgy, such as bowing upon the Name or toward the Altar. Therefore, an iconodulism antithetical to puritan sensibilities was present within these reforms. Continue reading